Wednesday, December 25, 2019
One of the Most Overlooked Answers for Research Paper Writing The exploration paper gives you the possiblity to contemplate some problem. So you simply cannot take some random number and data and write it as you desire. Dissertation writing services always prepared to assist you in academic carrier to scoring excellent grade. Whatever method or template you select for helping your students learn how to take notes, be certain to model it many times before the class demonstrating for them how to compose the notes since they read about a topic. Going to the library might not be a huge dig but differentiating between what is needed and what's not. There are numerous research materials offered in the libraries. While there are numerous elements to a great research article, one of the most crucial elements for your readers is the background of your study. Note down information of every sources When it's a big research undertaking, there's more chance to receive messy. To formulate an adequate research topic, you have to examine quite a lot of materials. For instance, sometimes you should do just a little background research and reading before it's possible to develop a research question. Pay a trip to their website if you're in need of a research paper writing service. Select the very affordable research writing service Students, who wish to acquire decent research writing service free of charge, might think about dropping the idea. The consumer wishing to discover the assistance of on-line customized research paper writers ought to be regarding the net. In such times it's recommended to find expert help from best academic writing on the net to supply students with the guidance and me ntoring for them to satisfy their academic paper requirements and deliver their assignments in time. It's simple to differentiate a research paper written by a skilled and one written by means of a school dropout. So you always ought to ask your professor what basic layout you've got to use while writing your college paper. Remember that many of students will need to gain from your term paper. A prudent student doesn't have to cover a sample paper. What You Can Do About Research Paper Writing Beginning in the Next 5 Minutes Forget about all of the essays you wrote while in high school in an evening and you're done. When considering research paper tips for college, you ought to avoid controversial and sensational topics and the topics which are too technical. Researching the essay topic will allow you to determine what to write about in the essay and the way to structure it. If you're writing a humanities or social science essay it's possible to find more literary approach es to start your introduction and announce the subject of your paper. You've got to choose a topic in which you have good expertise, and you'll be able to place your extra input. Furthermore, you ought to keep your background focused but balanced enough so that it's pertinent to a broader audience. The procedure for research begins with the assortment of a topic which is appropriate for your course or purpose. Explore the regions where you have basic understanding. The Fight Against Research Paper Writing It is an impossible task to complete dissertation writing in short time, it's time consuming task as it needs to search a good deal. You ought to keep in mind that before finalizing your research paper you've got to revise it repeatedly. Ensure you work hard to meet up with the deadline. However you're feeling about writing research papers, there's always something you may learn how to produce the process more efficient. Life, Death, and Research Paper Writing For insta nce, if you operate with a readers, multiple choice poll will want to understand about your principal research. For instance, the introduction and the conclusion is going to be offered to you. For example you can briefly emphasize the significance of the research in closing paragraph. These examples will allow you to make up your mind on where to locate a sample of a fantastic critique. Introducing Research Paper Writing Sometimes the last portion of an introduction to a research paper will be two or three lines that provide a summary of the structure of the human body of the paper. The writing style in a research paper has to be conventional and ought to abide by the guidelines offered by the institute. In case the paper is discovered to have not met the caliber of the customer, it's given back for more revisions. The research paper is a sort of academic writing that has adequate understanding of the info.
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
The Holocaust is, by definition, a tragedy. HaShoah, the Hebrew word for the Holocaust, translates to Ã¢â¬Å"the catastrophe.Ã¢â¬ The very notion of humor during the Holocaust may seem incongruous, appalling, and wildly inappropriate. Tragedy is seen as serious, while comedy is typically lighthearted in nature. However, there is precedence for Ã¢â¬Ëcomic relief,Ã¢â¬â¢ the presence of humor in tragedy with the desired effect to relieve tension. Frequently, comic relief is used so that tragedy does not overshadow us in darkness. Humor is simply an alternate, often more effective, lens through which we can approach history. Yet people still tend to draw red lines on especially tragic events, as analyzing the Shoah through the comedic lens is generally frowned upon, especially in the Jewish community. But, the taboo of Ã¢â¬ËHolocaust humorÃ¢â¬â¢ is already being challenged by various holocaust jokes, Joan Rivers, Viktor FrankleÃ¢â¬â¢s ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Search for Meaning, Sarah S ilvermanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"WowschwitzÃ¢â¬ , and Sander L. GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"Is Life Beautiful? Can the Shoah Be Funny? Some Thoughts on Recent and Older Films.Ã¢â¬ This norm of keeping humor out of the Holocaust should be challenged on the basis that it serves as an outlet for which to cope with tragedy, a means of solidarity and unity for the oppressed, and a vehicle for Nazi criticism. Living in a Nazi-occupied ghetto or concentration camp during the Shoah would be disturbing, traumatic, and certainly depressing. During the Shoah, however, the oppressed andShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust945 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSince the terrorist attack on Paris, to the natural disasters in Haiti; there have been a variety of tragic events that have occurred throughout history across the world. Perhaps one main tragedy that leaves people feeling baffled is the Holocaust. Eric Lichtblau described the Holocaust in his article, The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking, as a genocide in which Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Nazi Germany and its associates killed approximately six million Jewish people because the Nazis believed that exterminatingRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesassigned Adolf Hitler as their chancellor. Once Hitler had finally reached power he set out to complete one goal, create a Greater Germany free from the Jews (Ã¢â¬Å"The reasons for the Holocaust,Ã¢â¬ 2009). This tragedy is known today as, Ã¢â¬Å"The Holocaust,Ã¢â¬ that explains the terrors of our histories past. The face of the Holocaust, master of death, and leader of Germany; Adolf Hitler the most deceitful, powerful, well spoken, and intelligent person that acted as the key to this mass murder. According to a researchRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFrom the terrorist attack on Paris, to the natural disasters in Haiti; there have been a variety of tragic events that have occurred throughout history across the world. Perhaps one main tragedy that leaves people feeling baffled is the Holocaust. Eric Lichtblau described the Holocaust in his article, The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking, as a genocide in which Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Nazi Germany and its associates killed around six million Jewish people because the Nazis believed that exterminating the JewishRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages religious family and a tough culture surrounding him, the Holocaust effected his life to the extreme but along with all his suffering and the tragedies in his life the Holocaust did not take him. He stuck by his believes and made it out alive. Born in Vilna with pride, it gave an eminent name to the Jewish people. He has four sisters, Rachel, Sonia, Doba and _. Also his mother and father, nephews and nieces. All but Rachel and he died of the Holocaust. In Vilna the Jews lived on one side of the street andRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiverse in the cause; it is the indifference and ruthlessness that an individual portrays. This sort of behavior accommodates society and encourages people to accept and follow its routine and principles, such as the events that took place during the Holocaust. During the time period of 1933 to 1945, Adolf Hitler, an Austrian World War I veteran, decided to partake in twisted behavior. Hitler believed that in order to do his nation justice, the nation needed an ethnic cleansing. This ethnic cleansingRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust3499 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pageshowever, the holocaust seems to be the huge adversity to overcome. The holocaust has taught the s ociety many things; although the world has not exactly learned from the experiences entirely. The holocaust is a learning experience still today, so that this generation will not repeat the same drastic measures. Many people today seem to think that the holocaust never happened; in spite of this, there are those that disagree. I have had the opportunity to listen to a firsthand account of the tragedy that happenedRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPrior to the holocaust, however, he exhibits none of these characteristics. He was kind, wealthy, and uncommonly resourceful, and his marriage to Anja was filled with compassion, intimacy, and love. Where now Vladek is now stubborn, irritable, and almost comically stingy with his money. His experiences in the Holocaust undoubtedly played a role in these dramatic personality changes. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the war started that Vladek got a little more precautious about a few things. Whenever a bad thingRead Mor eThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust Essay1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWithin the era of 1933 to 1945, races struggled through times of gloom, torment and hopelessness. The Holocaust was hard on numerous people, with little survivors and still influences individuals present lives today. The majority of the anguish was brought about as a result of one manÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction, that had the capacity to impact a whole nation. The holocaust was a genocide that was exclusively centered around hatred found in Germany. Propaganda was one of the main causes, which conditioned the peopleRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn every moment, people make choices that impact society, continually shaping history. During the Holocaust, when the Nazi Party incarcerated millions of Jews, ordinary European citizens and their everyday decisions and shaped history through an amass of cause and effects. Their decisions were greatly influenced by their understanding of the universe of ob ligation, which sociologist Helen Fein defines as Ã¢â¬Å"the circle of individuals and groups Ã¢â¬Ëtoward whom obligations are owed, to whom rules applyRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1970 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Holocaust, 9/11, wars and assassinations are common events that come to mind when thinking about history. These events tend to make people think that mankind is evil and will always choose to be evil. However, when looking at the people behind the evil doings, are they really killing for a selfish reason? Mankind will always do good for their nation, no matter the cost. While most powerful leaders end up hurting many people, they either have good intentions behind the mask of people suffering
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about theCustomer Feedbackfor Landmark Hotel in Auckland. Answer: Introduction: The report discusses about the issues faced by Landmark hotel in Auckland. In light of losing several business accounts and drop in the rate of repeat bookings, General Manager of hotel emphasizes on measuring by ways of collecting data as he thinks that management is best done when various variable affecting it is measured. Report has two parts. In first part, varies ways of measuring guest satisfaction is discussed along with their strength and weakness. Integrate feedback from different ways and a way is designed for sharing the information and identifying people for reporting it (Ariffin et al., 2013). Second part of report discusses about several sub sets of questions from the survey conducted on guest for hotels. Various issues identified in the operation of hotels are discussed and several recommendations are provided for actions. Discussion: Part A: Landmark hotel is facing few issues concerning its booking rates and has been losing several business accounts. General Manager is thinking that guest satisfaction report would be relevant in determining the cause of lagging business and therefore he intends to measure the satisfaction of gests by some possible sources. Foundation of any successful business is formed because of satisfied customers (Chen et al., 2015). This is so because customer satisfaction leads to repeated purchase, build brand loyalty by spreading positive word of mouth. Satisfaction depicts the overall attitude of the customers toward the provider of service. There seems to exist positive connection between loyalty, customer satisfaction and retention. Measuring the satisfaction of customers assist the organization in understanding the key drivers that is causing dissatisfaction and satisfaction among the consumers with service provider. Moreover, it helps organization in focusing on its customers and improving their satisfaction. It also helps hoteliers in understanding the extent to which satisfaction is influenced by factors that is outside their control (El Haddad, 2015). However, there are various factors influencing customer satisfaction. Three possible sources for measuring guest satisfaction and their strength and weakness are as follows: There are various sources of measuring customer satisfaction and it comprise of external and internal sources. Conducting customer satisfaction survey- It is one of the economic and efficient ways of measuring customer satisfaction. They are designed to give unambiguous and anonymous insight into perception and thoughts of service and product. Gathering information directly from customers would be beneficial in measuring satisfaction (Molina-Azorn et al., 2015). However, there are some pros and cons of this method. Conducting survey helps in getting up to date feedback by regularly scheduling email and online surveys. It helps in receiving an immediate feedback from customers. Benchmark results are obtained as the organization can gain continuous insight into the customers. On the other hand, conducting survey might be faced with time constraint. Privacy issues is another disadvantage of this source as there is insecurity of releasing private information (Padilla-Melndez Garrido-Moreno, 2014). Telephonic interviews- This tool kit for measuring satisfaction comes with low cost and high control of sample and standards of interviewer. It uses simple scales for ratings. Some of the weakness of this method is explanatory visuals cannot be shown using this method. It is not possible to access all the customers through the phone. Reviewing Operational Data from your Own Organization: This source helps in uncovering customer discontent potential areas by reviewing key operational data. It will help in uncovering some factors that would be immediately fixed, which will get the business on right track and make customers happy (Prasad et al., 2014). It provides specific information that could be used in quality management. At the same time, some relevant information might be missed which can be solely available from external sources (Zhou et al., 2014). Therefore, this source is somewhat reliable. It is very essential for hotel such as landmark to manage its feedback properly so that it is directed toward implementing strategies for improving booking rate and acquiring of business accounts. Feedback report generated from measuring satisfaction of customers needs to be reported to senior management, operational management, customer facing staffs, communication staffs, strategic and police staffs. Involvement of the senior and operational management of landmark hotel would make them act on solving existing issues (Oh et al., 2015). This report would give them a sense of the way customers feel toward the service provided. Implementing results of customer satisfaction measurement is also critical for customer facing staffs. Feedback report of landmark hotel should be designed in such a way that it should that it include both summarized and specific information. Feedback report include cover page and a body consisting of three main sections. It will include a section of data on performance of hotel along with cover page for summary information. It will also contain a section of job specifics and companywide competencies. The data are summarized from the respondents concerning questionnaires. Information are presented using the descriptive statements. Feedback report include the evaluation of negative elements being discovered. Resolving of the issues is done by framing an action plan to be included in feedback report. Part B: Data of guest survey spreadsheet is calculated and analyzed with the help of measures of central tendency and standard deviation (Pizam et al., 2016). Mean, median, mode and standard deviation have been used for calculation purpose. Mean is average value of given set of observations. It is obtained by dividing the total number of observation by total number of observations. Median shows the middle most values in the set of observations. This value separates higher half of sample of data from the lower half. Mode is the most appeared value in data set. It means mode is most frequent occurred value. Standard deviation denotes variation from the average value and it is a measure of dispersion. It measures absolute variation of a distribution. Analysis of Figures From Guest Survey: First question mean, median, mode and standard deviation stands at 2.93,3,3 and .83 respectively. Most of respondents agree that service provided is of high standard. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation of second question stands at 3.06,3,4 and .87. Most of respondents agree that they are welcomed and looked after. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation of hotel maintenance stands at 2.1,2,2 and .71. These figures show that respondents are not satisfied with maintenance of landmark hotel. Fourth question mean, median, mode and standard deviation stands at 2.1,2,2 and .74. Figures depicts that room was not clean to high standard upon arrival. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation of fifth question stands at 2.5,3,3 and .77. It is depicted from figure that most of respondents disagree about room ability for getting good night sleep. Sixth question mean, median, mode and standard deviation stands at 2.4,2,2 and .67. Figure depicts that some of respondents disagree that breakfast was not an enjoyable experience. Mean median, mode and standard deviation of seventh question stands at 2.9,3,3 and .71. It is depicted by figure that most of respondents agree that good environmental practices is practiced by hotel. When it comes to recommend hotel by respondents, mean, median, mode and standard deviation stands at .53, 1, 1 and .507. Figures depicts that only few respondents would recommend this hotel to others. Ninth question mean, median, mode and standard deviation stands at .83, 1, 1 and .37. This value shows that only few respondents strongly disagree that they have stayed at this hotel. Average value is deviating least from observed value (Yang et al., 2014). Last question deals with preferring other hotel than Landmark hotel after experience. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation stands at .433, 0, 0 and .504. This Figure depicts that none of respondents would prefer another scenic hotel after experience of this hotel. From the above discussion and analysis of figures, some of issues faced by hotel can be listed down as below: Landmark hotel does not have high standard of maintenance Upon arrival, guests are experiencing untidiness Landmark hotel has very fewer chances of being recommended by majority of respondents. Therefore, from above analysis, landmark hotel needs to maintain high standard in terms of cleanliness of rooms and maintenance of hotel rooms. Respondents are less likely to recommend landmark hotel to others. Recommendation: It is recommended on part of hotel to embrace the idea that maintenance of assets and management of visibility should be increased. This shows that attention of senior level management is required for controlling and maintaining the infrastructures. Asset management history of hotel should be tracked and evaluated monthly for identifying trends of hotel maintenance. It would include energy drains, many work orders issues related to potential capital expenditure and bottlenecks. It should be ascertained that all the assets of hotel along with asset detail such as description, installation cost, serial number, and vendor, associated cost and expected useful life. Hotel should make evaluation of all the above. Any increase in proactive maintenance should come with setting of the target and a computerized maintenance management software should be installed. This would provide senior management. It is also required on part of management to take some measures to promote the hotel, as fewer respondents are likely to recommend the hotel to others. This can be done by offering packages, organizing events, launching loyalty programs and making seasonal promotions. Conclusion: From the above discussion, it can be concluded that maintenance trends of landmark hotel are the most important identified issue leading to falling booking rates. It is the responsibility of owners and management of hotels for maintain physical infrastructure, equipment is while jointly maintaining environmental responsibility. It is confirmed by majority of respondents that maintenance issue was the main reason behind decrease in preference of customers toward service of Landmark hotel. Reference: Ariffin, A. A. M., Nameghi, E. N., Zakaria, N. I. (2013). The effect of hospitableness and servicescape on guest satisfaction in the hotel industry.Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration,30(2), 127-137. Chen, C. M., Yang, H. W., Li, E. Y., Liu, C. C. (2015). How does hotel pricing influence guest satisfaction by the moderating influence of room occupancy?.International Journal of Hospitality Management,49, 136-138. El Haddad, R. (2015). Exploration of revenue management practicescase of an upscale budget hotel chain.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,27(8), 1791-1813. Molina-Azorn, J. F., Tar, J. J., Pereira-Moliner, J., Lpez-Gamero, M. D., Pertusa-Ortega, E. M. (2015). The effects of quality and environmental management on competitive advantage: A mixed methods study in the hotel industry.Tourism Management,50, 41-54. Oh, H., Oh, H., Kim, K., Kim, K. (2017). Customer satisfaction, service quality, and customer value: years 2000-2015.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,29(1), 2-29. Padilla-Melndez, A., Garrido-Moreno, A. (2014). Customer relationship management in hotels: Examining critical success factors.Current Issues in Tourism,17(5), 387-396. Peir-Signes, A., Segarra-Oa, M. D. V., Verma, R., Mondjar-Jimnez, J., Vargas-Vargas, M. (2014). The impact of environmental certification on hotel guest ratings.Cornell Hospitality Quarterly,55(1), 40-51. Pizam, A., Pizam, A., Shapoval, V., Shapoval, V., Ellis, T., Ellis, T. (2016). Customer satisfaction and its measurement in hospitality enterprises: a revisit and update.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,28(1), 2-35. Prasad, K., Wirtz, P. W., Yu, L. (2014). Measuring hotel guest satisfaction by using an online quality management system.Journal of Hospitality Marketing Management,23(4), 445-463. Xiang, Z., Schwartz, Z., Gerdes, J. H., Uysal, M. (2015). What can big data and text analytics tell us about hotel guest experience and satisfaction?.International Journal of Hospitality Management,44, 120-130. Yang, Y., Luo, H., Law, R. (2014). Theoretical, empirical, and operational models in hotel location research.International Journal of Hospitality Management,36, 209-220. Zhou, L., Ye, S., Pearce, P. L., Wu, M. Y. (2014). Refreshing hotel satisfaction studies by reconfiguring customer review data.International Journal of Hospitality Management,38, 1-10.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Legalizing Medical Marijuana The debate over whether to legalize marijuana has been one of the most controversial issues dividing courts, the federal government, state governments, and voters. In 1996, Arizona and California voters overwhelmingly approved the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Propositions 200 and 215 represented a dramatic shift from a previously united federal and state front against illegal drugs to one where state governments and voters are now at odds with the federal government over the medical use of controlled substances. Rather than focusing on how to improve and maintain the long-standing war on drugs, the policy issue has now become; who controls AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s drug laws, courts, the federal government, state governments, or the voters? In addition, the legalization of marijuana poses other questions; does legalizing marijuana undermine the seemingly endless federal war on drugs by moving towards greater tolerance of marijuana and other drugs? Is more research necessary to determine the benefits or hazardous effects of marijuana? Would legalizing marijuana open the floodgates to legalizing other controlled substances such as heroin or LSD? This paper analyzes and examines. We will write a custom essay sample on Legalizing Medical Marijuana or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The history of marijuana legalization and prohibition. The arguments for and against legalizing marijuana. This paper concludes by recommending that before marijuana is legalized for medical use there needs to be more testing to improve our knowledge and understanding of marijuana. The first recorded use of marijuana as medicine was in a Chinese pharmacopoeia in 2727 B. C. The cornerstone of drug prohibition in the United States was the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 which restricted the use of opiates such as cocaine, heroin, and morphine to medical purposes (Trebach and Inciardi, p. 3). In the United States, marijuana was legal until the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 established the federal prohibition of the drug. (Grinspoon; Trebach and Inciardi). Had marijuana not been removed from the list of drugs in the United States Pharmacopoeia in 1937, it would have been grand fathered into the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act as a prescription drug, just as cocaine and morphine were. (Grinspoon). As a result of the tremendous increase in the number of recreational drug users and a more liberalized political climate, marijuana medicinal uses were rediscovered in the 1970s. In the later 1970s and 1980s, marijuana was medically used by hundreds of patients (mainly in the form of synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol) in research projects conducted by several states for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy. (Grinspoon). Likewise, in 1976, the federal government approved the use of marijuana as a medicine by instituting the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program (CIND), under which physicians could obtain an Investigational New Drug application (IND) for a patient to receive marijuana. (Grinspoon). However, this program was so filled with and bureaucratically overburdened that in the course of history only about three dozen individuals ever received marijuana. One argument in favor of legalization is that marijuana provides several medical benefits for individuals suffering from asthma, cancer, glaucoma, migraine headaches, multiple sclerosis, and other symptoms and syndromes. (Grinspoon, p. 1). First, marijuana is remarkably non-toxic as evidenced by the fact that there has never been a reported death caused by marijuana overdose. Grinspoon, p. 1). In addition, marijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term and short-term effects (i. e. , increased appetite, increased memory loss/slowed memory function, etc. ) are relatively inconsequential compared to medicines for which marijuana may be substituted. (Grinspoon, p. 1). Next, once patients no longer have to pay the prohibition tariff, marijuana will be less expensive than the medications it replaces. (Grinspoon, p. 1). Finally, marijuana is remarkably versatile; case histories and clinical evidence suggests it is useful in the treatment of over two dozen symptoms and syndromes, and others will undoubtedly be discovered in the future. (Grinspoon, p. 1). Another argument in favor of legalization is that there are many activities that are considered integral parts of daily life that are more lethal than marijuana. In order to support this contention, proponents note that in the United States, tobacco alone kills over 430,000, alcohol 110,000, prescription drugs 32,000, and aspirin and Tylenol 7,600 yearly. http://my. marijuana. com, p. 1). By contrast, all illegal drugs combined, including, amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy, GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), heroin, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), marijuana, mescaline, PCP (phencyclidine), and psilocybin (magic) mushrooms killed approximately 11,000 in 1999. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 1). In addition, proponents contend that prohibition has not been sho wn to have a measurable impact on the demand for drugs in general. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). Countries such as Italy, Portugal, and Spain, have decriminalized the use of all drugs, including cocaine and heroin, and offer government subsidized programs to assist those addicted to hard drugs such as heroin, providing them with doctor supervised locations to ingest their drugs. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). Likewise, the Netherlands has legalized soft drugs including marijuana and magic mushrooms. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). The result of these programs has been lower drug addiction, death, and use rates. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). Proponents of legalization contend that by preventing valid manufacturers from making these products, prohibition increases the dangers associated with drug use by preventing regulation, and forcing drug users to buy products which have no guarantee of dosage or purity. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). In addition, proponents contend that prohibition increases street violence by forcing the sale of drugs to the black market, which encourages the formation of organized crime in order to distribute and manufacture these substances under the control of a group of individuals. http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). Laws are structured in order to punish adults more heavily than minors, and due to this, minors are enlisted by these organized crime units, provided with guns or other weapons, and used to sell or transport these drugs, with the knowledge that if they are caught, they will not be as heavily punished. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). This increase in violence and the focus on c riminalizing drug use has resulted in the criminal justice system being overloaded. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 2). Non-violent drug offenders make up 58% of the federal prison population according to the ACLU. In addition, mandatory minimum sentencing laws and laws such as CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Three Strikes law are unfairly distributed, jailing some for life, simply for selling a chemical which the buyer freely chooses to ingest, making it a harsher crime to participate in a consensual act than to commit second degree murder. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 3). Proponents of legalization also contend that the war on drugs presents an immense monetary drain on the United States economy. http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4). For example, in 2000, the Clinton administration spent more than $17. 9 billion on the war on drugs. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4). By comparison, the president is requested $4. 5 billion in discretionary appropriations for the Department of Education in the fiscal year 2002. (Dept. Of Ed. ). In short, the United States is spending 40% as much on fighting the drug war as it is on educating for the next generation. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4). Finally, proponents of legalization contend that prohibition is causing the government to miss out on an opportunity to raise an incredible amount of tax revenue. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. 4). The international illicit drug business generates as much as $400 billion in trade annually according to the United Nations International Drug Control Program, which amounts to 8% of all international trade and is comparable to the annual turnover in textiles. (http://my. marijuana. com, p. ). Legalizing marijuana and taxing its sale would allow the government to use this money to improve and pay for drug treatment programs, health care, homeless shelters, and schools. Legalization would not only eliminate the $18 billion per year spent fighting the drug war, but would in turn raise at least $40 billion per year in tax revenue, if one assumes a mild 10% tax on the drug trade, a number nearly equivalent to the entire United States education budget. (http://my. marijuana. om, p. 4). While pr oponents of legalization contend that marijuana provides several medical benefits, there is no concrete, convincing scientific evidence that marijuana offers benefits that patients cannot obtain from approved prescription drugs such as Marinol. However, patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy or suffering from multiple sclerosis report fewer side-effects with marijuana than with regular drugs. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 4). Although the American Medical Association and other official medical groups oppose medical marijuana, a 1991 survey found 44% of oncologists had suggested use of marijuana to treat nausea associated with chemotherapy. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 4). Thus, before marijuana may be approved as a prescription drug, clinical trials to gauge its therapeutic effect upon pain must be conducted. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 4). Another argument opposing legalization is that marijuana is a (gateway) drug and that legalizing it will only encourage more individuals to try it. However, like the argument that providing high school students with condoms and sex education will inspire teenagers to become sexually active, this argument is logically flawed. If an individual wishes to try marijuana or to have premarital sex, he or she will not be deterred from doing so simply because it is illegal. Finally, opponents of legalization contend that medical marijuana laws are overbroad, i. . , CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Proposition 215 is written in such a way that almost any ailment or pain could be construed as justification for the use of marijuana and also allows for the cultivation of marijuana, not just possession. (http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 3). In addition, ArizonaÃ¢â¬â¢s Proposition 200 goes beyond marijuana, which is often viewed as a soft drug by both opponents and prop onents of legalization, and empowers doctors to prescribe narcotics such as heroin and LSD if they see fit. (http://www. cnn. om/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html, p. 3). Although there are many arguments in favor of legalizing marijuana, more clinical and laboratory research is necessary to improve our knowledge and understanding of marijuana. First, we need to know how many patients and which patients with each symptom or syndrome are likely to find marijuana more effective than existing drugs. Next, more information is required about marijuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on the immune system in immunologically impaired patients, and its interaction with other medications. Finally, if and when marijuana is legalized, there should be a uniform distribution and enforcement system in place between federal and state governments to regulate who may obtain marijuana, its accepted uses, and quality control mechanisms. References Grinspoon, Lester. Medical Marihuana in a Time of Prohibition. International Journal of Drug Policy, April, 1999. Trebach, Arnold S. and Inciardi, James A. Legalize It? Debating American Drug Policy. The American University Press, Washington, DC. 1993. http://my. marijuana. com http://www. cnn. com/health/9702/weed. wars/issues/focus/index. html
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Printers In 1953, the first high-speed printer was developed by Remington-Rand for use on the Univac computer. In 1938, Chester Carlson invented a dry printing process called electrophotography commonly called a Xerox, the foundation technology for laser printers to come. The original laser printer called EARS was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center beginning in 1969 and completed in November, 1971. Xerox Engineer, Gary Starkweather adapted Xerox copier technology adding a laser beam to it to come up with the laser printer. According to Xerox, "The Xerox 9700 Electronic Printing System, the first xerographic laser printer product, was released in 1977. The 9700, a direct descendent from the original PARC "EARS" printer which pioneered in laser scanning optics, character generation electronics, and page-formatting software, was the first product on the market to be enabled by PARC research." According to IBM, "the very first IBM 3800 was installed in the central accounting office at F. W. WoolworthÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢s North American data center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1976." The IBM 3800 Printing System was the industryÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢s first high-speed, laser printer. A laser printer that operated at speeds of more than 100 impressions-per-minute. It was the first printer to combine laser technology and electrophotography according to IBM. In 1992, Hewlett-Packard released the popular LaserJet 4, the first 600 by 600 dots per inch resolution laser printer. In 1976, the inkjet printer was invented, but it took until 1988 for the inkjet to become a home consumer item with Hewlett-Parkard's release of the DeskJet inkjet printer, priced at a whopping $1000. Printer Technology By: EH Since the introduction of computers into our society, there have been countless advancements in this technology. One of the most frequently used output devices in the computer system is the printer. Like all other components of the computer, this p... Free Essays on Printers Free Essays on Printers Printers In 1953, the first high-speed printer was developed by Remington-Rand for use on the Univac computer. In 1938, Chester Carlson invented a dry printing process called electrophotography commonly called a Xerox, the foundation technology for laser printers to come. The original laser printer called EARS was developed at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center beginning in 1969 and completed in November, 1971. Xerox Engineer, Gary Starkweather adapted Xerox copier technology adding a laser beam to it to come up with the laser printer. According to Xerox, "The Xerox 9700 Electronic Printing System, the first xerographic laser printer product, was released in 1977. The 9700, a direct descendent from the original PARC "EARS" printer which pioneered in laser scanning optics, character generation electronics, and page-formatting software, was the first product on the market to be enabled by PARC research." According to IBM, "the very first IBM 3800 was installed in the central accounting office at F. W. WoolworthÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢s North American data center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1976." The IBM 3800 Printing System was the industryÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢s first high-speed, laser printer. A laser printer that operated at speeds of more than 100 impressions-per-minute. It was the first printer to combine laser technology and electrophotography according to IBM. In 1992, Hewlett-Packard released the popular LaserJet 4, the first 600 by 600 dots per inch resolution laser printer. In 1976, the inkjet printer was invented, but it took until 1988 for the inkjet to become a home consumer item with Hewlett-Parkard's release of the DeskJet inkjet printer, priced at a whopping $1000. Printer Technology By: EH Since the introduction of computers into our society, there have been countless advancements in this technology. One of the most frequently used output devices in the computer system is the printer. Like all other components of the computer, this p...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Story of How Canada Got Its Name The name Canada comes from kanata, the Iroquois-Huron word for village or settlement. The IroquoisÃ used the word to describe the village of Stadacona, present-day Quebec City. During his second voyage to New FranceÃ in 1535, French explorer Jacques Cartier sailed up the Saint Lawrence River for the first time. The Iroquois pointed him in the direction of kanata, the village at Stadacona, which Cartier misinterpreted as a reference toÃ both the village of Stadacona and the wider area subject to Donnacona, the Stadacona Iroquois chief. During Cartiers 1535 trip, the French established along the Saint Lawrence the colony of Canada, the first colony in what the French called New France. Use of Canada gained prominence from there.Ã The Name Canada Takes Hold (1535 to the 1700s) By 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this small region along theÃ Saint Lawrence RiverÃ as Canada. By 1547, maps were showing the name Canada as everything north of the St. Lawrence River. Cartier referred to the St. Lawrence River as la riviÃ ¨re du CanadaÃ (the river of Canada),Ã and the name began to take hold. Even though the French called the region New France, by 1616 the entire area along the great river of Canada and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence was still called Canada. As the country expanded to the west and the south in the 1700s, Canada was the unofficial name of an area spanning the American Midwest, extending as far south as what is now the state of Louisiana. After the British conquered New France in 1763, the colonyÃ was renamedÃ the Province of Quebec. Then, as British loyalists headed north during and after the American Revolutionary War, Quebec was divided into two parts. Canada Becomes Official In 1791, the Constitutional Act, also called the Canada Act, divided the Province of Quebec into the colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada. This marked the first official use of the name Canada. In 1841, the two QuebecsÃ were united again, this time as the Province of Canada. On July 1, 1867, CanadaÃ was adopted as the legal name for the new country of Canada upon its confederation. On that date, the Confederation Convention formally combined the Province of Canada, which included Quebec and Ontario, with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick as one Dominion under the name of Canada. This produced the physical configuration of modern Canada, which is today the second largest country in the world by area (after Russia).Ã July 1 is still celebrated as Canada Day. Other Names Considered for Canada Canada wasnt the only name considered for the new dominion, although it was ultimately chosen by unanimous vote at the Confederation Convention.Ã Several other names were suggested for the northern half of the North American continent leading up to confederation, some of which were later repurposed elsewhere in the country. The list included Anglia (a medieval Latin name for England), Albertsland, Albionora, Borealia, Britannia, Cabotia, Colonia, and Efisga, an acronym for the first letters of the countriesÃ England, France, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, with the A for Aboriginal. Other names floated for consideration were Hochelaga, Laurentia (a geological name for part of North America), Norland, Superior, Transatlantia, Victorialand and Tuponia, an acrostic for The United Provinces of North America. This is how the Canadian government remembers the name debate on Ã¢â¬â¹Canada.ca: The debate was placed in perspective by Thomas DÃ¢â¬â¢Arcy McGee, who declared on February 9, 1865: Ã¢â¬Å"I read in one newspaper not less than a dozen attempts to derive a new name. One individual chooses Tuponia and another Hochelaga as a suitable name for the new nationality. Now I ask any honourable member of this House how he would feel if he woke up some fine morning and found himself instead of a Canadian, a Tuponian or a Hochelagander.Ã¢â¬ Fortunately for posterity, McGeeÃ¢â¬â¢s wit and reasoningÃ¢â¬âalong with common senseÃ¢â¬âprevailed... The Dominion of Canada Dominion became part of the name instead of kingdom as a clear reference that Canada was under British rule but still its own separate entity. After World War II, as Canada became more autonomous, the full name Dominion of Canada was used less and less. The countrys name was officially changed to Canada inÃ 1982Ã when the Canada Act was passed, and its been known by that name ever since. The Fully Independent Canada Canada did not become fully independent from Britain until 1982 whenÃ its constitution was patriated under the Constitution Act of 1982, or the Canada Act, The act essentially transferred the countrys highest law, the British North America Act, from the authority of the British Parliament- a connection from the colonial past- toÃ CanadasÃ federal and provincial legislatures. The document contains theÃ original statute that established theÃ Canadian ConfederationÃ in 1867 (the BritishÃ North AmericaÃ Act),Ã amendmentsÃ that the British Parliament made to it over the years, and Canadas Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the result of fierce negotiations between the federal and provincial governments that set down basic rights ranging from freedom of religion to linguistic and educational rights based on the test of numbers. Through it all, the name Canada has remained.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Selective Incorporation - Essay Example Selective incorporation has been applied in numerous instances to protect and uphold human rights especially in a criminal proceeding. This was done during the tenure of chief justice Earl Warren when the rights enjoyed by the criminal defendants were expanded. For example, in the case of Gideon v Wainwright, the defendant was accused of breaking into bay harbor pool hall and stealing cigarette change from the vending machines.Though Gideon requested a lawyer to be appointed by the states, the state of Florida declined, stating that this can only be done in capital offenses. However, the Supreme Court ruled that the 14th amendment allowed all defendants to access the services of an attorney. This right, as stated in the sixth amendment of the constitution was meant to protect the rights of the accused and ensure the provision of free trails. The Miranda v Arizona established the principle of equal access to legal representation during a trial and the determination was based on select ive incorporation. Failure to inform a suspect of his right during arrest constitutes legal subjugation of their legal rights as contained in the first 8 amendments and the 14th amendment of the United States Constitution. The 5th amendment of the united states indicates that a suspect has a right to remain silent during arrest as any pronouncement made can be used against them in the determination of the case.The sixth amendment indicates that a legal counsel must represent suspects during the determination of their cases.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
How did the economic development of the Gilded age affect American Freedom - Essay Example It entailed a notion that such approach to spontaneous progress determines allocation of power and social security. In this regard, reformists of the period were led to conceive that potential peril exists with the significant concern that as a response to it, people of the lower class may act in tumultuous aggression in exercising their democratic right over to suppress individual economic growth thinking that liberty of acquisition of rights to property (Foner), particularly with those who could afford, would only emphasize inequality among social divisions and thus create on appropriating amount of common interests. Progression of economic development enabled Americans to adapt to the concept and application of Ã¢â¬ËSocial DarwinismÃ¢â¬â¢ in their everyday living since the competition to acquire relative or higher advantage in upgrading social and economic status in American society had apparently become essential. With the rapidly growing rate of capital formation, GDP, and wages (Gilded), this condition concretized the effect of social freedom and transformation across vast critical regions of societies in U.S. in which most citizens began expressing individual or collective views by putting up labor unions that served to oppose severely improper conditions, shift schedules, loads, and unjust wages at work. Democracy was put in wide and intense practice of articulating protest with the desire to take part in the evolving process of industrial growth. In this endeavor, they sought to be assured as well of experiencing freedom from any form of injustice or oppression of employers who were p redictably consumed by the principle of capitalism or profit-orientation for use in business that required irrational gravity of labor at the expense of either skilled or unskilled workers (Gilded). Since Social Darwinism in human society advocates natural selection without interference from the government, the ensuing crisis with inequality due to the fast rate
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Ashford University Essay Pornography is very addictive and can destroy someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage and life. This addiction can, and in many cases, lead to someone committing very serious sexual crimes. People who look at porn often look for more perversity in different areas. The resources from which I found my information on is the Ashford Library and a couple credible internet sites. There are several reasons why people turn to porn. Some reasons are for seeing their own fantasies acted out because they canÃ¢â¬â¢t act them out with their own partner / spouse, some people want to avoid intimacy within their own relationship for personal reasons, some just do it for personal pleasure. But for whatever reason, there is always a consequence that will follow. According to the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML), 56% of divorces occur because one spouse keeps returning to a pornographic website. These men / women feel as though they are being compared to these people in the pornographic films or pictures. Whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s the man or the woman who is watching porn inside the marriage, in most cases, they are doing this against their spouses wishes. This leads to lack of intimacy, low self esteem, shame, and lack of trust. This also makes the spouse feel as if they are no longer found attractive. Ã¢â¬Å"Just ask your spouse how confident they feel being naked in front of you after youÃ¢â¬â¢ve looked at pornography and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll understand this one.Ã¢â¬ ( http://www.debttolife.com ). Many people say that they introduce porn into their marriage to spice their love life up but in the end all this does is slowly destroy the intimacy that was there. After watching pornography peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views are completely changed. After being exposed to R-Ã rated material men no longer see their spouse as they once did. They look at them now more as an object rather than an individual that they love. Studies have shown (http://www.webmd.com ) that pornography can be just the same as an addiction. Some experts who have studied porn addiction have called the effects of porn on the brain toxic and also compared it to the deadly drug cocaine (WebMD, 2014). These addicts no longer just suffer from nights without sleep or unpaid credit card bills but they are also becoming more engaged in group sex and sexual contact with animals. Other effects that have surfaced from pornography include acting out what they have seen in porn material, sexual acts towards children both boys and girls, and rape using foreign materials / objects. (The Forerunner, 1991). Child pornography is a disgusting fact that we hear about every day. Ã¢â¬Å"Child pornography is the visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct includes acts such as intercourse, bestiality and masturbation as well as lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area.Ã¢â¬ (Pulido, 2013). Recently, there were 71 people, 70 men and 1 woman, who were arrested in child pornography charges. Among that 70 included a police officer, a paramedic, a rabbi, an airline pilot, an architect, and a Boy Scout leader. Many of these people who were arrest had search the phrases Ã¢â¬Å"real child rapeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"family sexÃ¢â¬ into their computers search engines turning up extremely disturbing images (Hays, 2014). With so many people connected to the internet it has made this type of crime so easy. Perverts and pedophiles search the web everyday to find new victims. Ã¢â¬Å"The victims are getting younger, and the images more violent.Ã¢â¬ (Flack). When a picture of a child circles the internet going from one person to another, that child is being re-abused. No child should have to endear that type of suffering, never! A peer to Ã¢â¬â peer, also known as P2P, file sharing network, that allows people to share music, videos, and pictures, was under investigation by authorizes and had 3,000 child pornography consumers with tens of thousands of child pornographic imagesÃ traded. Ã¢â¬Å"The investigation began after agents, using software available to law enforcement, were able to trace f iles of child pornography to an I.P. address on a computer used by Brian Fanelli, 54, who until January was the police chief of Mount Pleasant, N.YÃ¢â¬ (Berger, 2014). Another, earlier, report back in 2009, out of all the arrest made on P2P users, 33 percent of those arrested had images of children three years old and younger and 42 percent had images of children showing some type of sexual explicit material. (Pulido, 2013). Virtue Ethics is Ã¢â¬Å"A persons character is the totality of his character traits. Our character traits can be good, bad or somewhere in between. They can be admirable or not. The admirable character traits, the marks of perfection in character, are called virtues, their opposites are vices.Ã¢â¬ (Garrett, 2005)., I believe that this theory is a big part of someone who is willing to put everything at risk for something so degrading and disrespectful to themselves. A persons character says a lot about who that person is and what that person may be capable of doing. Not everyone has good virtue ethics and this is when oneÃ¢â¬â¢s character and moral traits come in play. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s character is shown through their actions an d behavior, whether this is being good or bad. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s moral values are shown through their honesty, their loyalty, and their respect for others. As we all know pornography is very popular but it can also cause serious problems. Many people look at the disturbing images not thinking about the consequences, they are only thinking about what is happening at that moment and at that moment thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what they want to do. I look at this issue using the deontology theory. Ã¢â¬Å"Rather than looking at the consequences of an act, deontology looks at the reason for which an act is done, and the rule according to which one chooses to act.Ã¢â¬ (Mosser, 2013). I take that as someone doing something on impulse rather than thinking about the consequences that they will face when they act upon their decision. If someone knew that they was going to destroy their marriage by watching porn, if someone knew that by watching porn it would make them fall behind on their bills, orÃ if someone knew that by watching porn they would go out and commit sexual crimes, do you think they would have continued or even started looking at these image s, I think not! REFERENCES: Berger, J. (2014, May).71 Are Accused in a Child Pornography Case, Officials Say. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/nyregion/dozens-arrested-in-new-york-state-child-pornography-investigation.html?_r=0 Dr. Garrett. (2005, Nov.) Virtue Ethcs. Retrieved from http://people.wku.edu/jan.garrett/ethics/virtthry.htm Editorial Staff. (1991, Nov.). The Documented Effect of Porn. The Forerunner, X(VI). Retrieved from http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0388_Effects_of_Pornograp.html Flack, (Date, N/A)E. Bill Calls For Harsher Penalties For Possessing Child Porn. Retrieved from http://www.wave3.com/story/4639194/bill-calls-for-harsher-penalties-for-possessing-child-porn Hays, T. (2014, May). Cop, rabbi among 71 charged in child porn case. Telegraph Herald Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1527156210?accountid=32521 Mosser, K. (2013). Ethics and social responsibility (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Pulido, Ph.D. (Oct, 201 3). Child Pornography: Basic Facts About A Horrific Crime. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mary-l-pulido-phd/child-pornography-basic-f_b_4094430.html
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman Brown,Ã¢â¬ by Nathanial Hawthorne, is the story of one manÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to find himself. In it, Hawthorne uses many elements as symbols to add significance throughout the chronicle. The author does a good job of portraying some of the people and objects with symbols and allows the story to become more developed. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses many people as symbols throughout "Young Goodman Brown," but the roles that are most symbolic are those of Goodman Brown and his wife Faith. Both of the characters' names are symbolic of their personalities. Goodman is truly a Ã¢â¬Å"good man.Ã¢â¬ Goodman Brown states, Ã¢â¬Å"With Heaven above and Faith below, I will stand firm against the devilÃ¢â¬ (322). This shows that he is a good religious man with a lot of faith in God....
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
As it is anticipated that there is a fundamental objective of the company to reduce costs, make informed decisions and consolidate information, there is urgent need to for resilient development of the business intelligence and data warehousing (Collier, 2012). The poor response by IT in the provision of strategic information indicates that the system is incapable of guiding the company to success. This is a potential threat to the prosperity of the business, and hence a quicker intervention is required to ensure success is attained. Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing as a Solution The implementation of BI and DWH services in the sales department would ensure a sustained growth and a competitive edge to the company. Integration of business intelligence would cover the use of information necessary to drive the organization insight. Operational business intelligence would produce an improved analysis of sales data and provide in-depth knowledge of the performance indicators of the marketing department such as the customers of the company, competitors, economic environment and internal operations that would in turn help in making efficient and best quality sales and marketing decisions (Collier, 2012). Also, the concept of data warehousing would enable a central integration and management of sales and marketing database containing data from the four operational sources in the department from heterogeneous sources. The created database would contain structured sales data for query analysis and can be accessed by all the authorized users. The good news reads that th e data warehouse can be created and updated at any time, with limited disruption of the operational systems (Simon, 2014). There is a broad set of technologies, applications and knowledge for gathering and analyzing sales data for the purpose of helping users make sales and marketing decisions. Issues Needed to be Addressed There is need to integrate BI and DWH applications in the operational systems as there is a significant requirement of current data for the purposes of sales. These tools are critical in supporting the sales and marketing decision makers in the organization. However, without proper governance, it would a long-awaited dream to achieve the value offered by BI and DWH. As such, there is urgent need to develop BI/DWH governance framework in the sales and marketing department based on universal principles and clear information ownership and dissemination. Essentially, there is a need for designing, implementing and making effective use of BI tools to achieve marketing objectives and increase revenue returns. Summary Making the most of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s data assets is the purpose of BI at a high level. The company would increase its competitive advantage such as reducing costs, increasing investment returns, reducing risks by making best data-driven decisions through a structured BI. Therefore, we can begin by developing the governance framework through designing, executing, monitoring and controlling and implementing to enhance proper management of the company sales data. References Collier, K. (2012). Agile analytics: A value-driven approach to business intelligence and data warehousing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley. Simon, A. R. (2014). Enterprise business intelligence and data warehousing: Program management essentials. Source document
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Herman Goering thought that no Air force or military in the world could stand up to that of the Nazi Luftwaffe. His boastful statement was made with well acclaim in that the Luftwaffe was a very powerful aerial force, but he was being narrow-minded when he made this statement against the production potential of the United States, which has time and time again has proved to be the most powerful nation in the world. Without the military production of the United States, the Allies would not have had a chance against the Germans and their powerful forces. Through many changes, the labor and production force of the U.S. changed from producing civilian goods, to producing military goods. These goods were supplied to all nations of the Allied Powers, and the United States quickly became the most important factor in World War II. Starting in 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt promised to help the United Kingdom fight Nazi Germany by providing them with military supplies, but while staying out of actual combat. Roosevelt gave a radio broadcast on December 29, 1940, to address Americans to support the Allies in Europe and China, in their war against Germany and Japan. He called the nation an Ã¢â¬Å"Arsenal of DemocracyÃ¢â¬ toÃ reference the powerful industrial machine it is, and how it can be the supplier of military goods to the Allied war effort. The United States military forces and most allied forces relied on the United States production of food and military goods. This meant that Americans on the home-front had to be rationed for what they can have, which meant they can only purchase so much of certain items. Many consumer goods had to be severely rationed or taken out of the market totally, because they were needed for the war effort. This is why Americans were encouraged to grow Ã¢â¬Å"Victory GardensÃ¢â¬ so that they produced their own food, and what food they normally consumed from markets could help contribute to our troops as well as those of the Allied forces. Food production was then focused on providing for the troops instead of the everyday consumer, because they were expected to contribute for themselves and thus help contribute to the soldiers. The United States also made many technological innovations that helped revolutionize certain aspects of war, one of these being the pressurized air cabin in air planes. This helped prevent pilots from getting hypoxia (low oxygen levels in the blood), while also letting planes fly higher, and with more comfort for its passengers. This meant allied bombers like the b-29 could fly higher and escape low anti air missiles and fire from the ground. The Manhattan Project that the U.S. held with the United Kingdom and Canada also helped produce many technological innovations. The main product of this research program was the atomic bomb that would eventually be ordered into use on Japan, and would usher in their surrender and the end of the Second World War. We all know now that GoeringÃ¢â¬â¢s statement was terribly misinformed, otherwise Germany and the Axis Powers would not have been defeated by the Allies. The United States was the team Captain in this effort and without them the chances of winning would have been slim to none. In the case of this war, and in the case of any war, production plays a key role, and in World War Two, the United States Ã¢â¬Å"Arsenal of DemocracyÃ¢â¬ provided the Allies with the goods and resources necessary for victory.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Siege of Veracruz in the Mexican-American War The Siege of Veracruz began on March 9 and ended on March 29, 1847, and was fought during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). With the beginning of the conflict in May 1846, American forces under Major General Zachary Taylor won quick victories at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma before advancing to the fortress city of Monterrey. Attacking in September 1846, Taylor captured the city after a bloody battle. In the wake of the fighting, he angered President James K. Polk when he granted the Mexicans an eight-week armistice and allowed Monterreys defeated garrison to go free.Ã With Taylor at Monterrey, discussions began in Washington regarding future American strategy. It was decided that a strike directly at the Mexican capital at Mexico City would be the key to winning the war. As a 500-mile march from Monterrey over rugged terrain was deemed impractical, the decision was made to land on the coast near Veracruz and march inland. This decision made, Polk was forced to decide on a commander for the mission. A New Commander While Taylor was popular, he was an outspoken Whig who had frequently criticized Polk publicly. Polk, a Democrat, would have preferred one of his own, but lacking an appropriate candidate, selected Major General Winfield Scott who, though a Whig, posed less of a political threat.Ã To create Scotts invasion force, the bulk of Taylors veteran troops were ordered to the coast. Left south of Monterrey with a small army, Taylor successfully held off a much larger Mexican force at the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847. The sitting General-in-Chief of the US Army, Scott was a more talented general than Taylor and had come to prominence during the War of 1812. In that conflict, he had proven one of the few able field commanders and earned praise for his performances at Chippawa and Lundys Lane. Scott continued to rise after the war, holding increasingly important posts and studying abroad, before being appointed general-in-chief in 1841. Organizing the Army On November 14, 1846, the US Navy captured the Mexican port of Tampico. Arriving at Lobos Island, fifty miles south of the city, on February 21, 1847, Scott found few of the 20,000 men he had been promised. Over the next several days, more men arrived and Scott came to command three divisions led by Brigadier Generals William Worth and David Twiggs, and Major General Robert Patterson. While the first two divisions were comprised of US Army regulars, Pattersons was made up of volunteer units drawn from Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, Tennessee, and South Carolina. The armys infantry was supported by three regiments of dragoons under Colonel William Harney and multiple artillery units. By March 2, Scott had around 10,000 men and his transports began moving south protected by Commodore David Connors Home Squadron. Three days later, the lead ships arrived south of Veracruz and anchors off Anton Lizardo. Boarding the steamer Secretary on March 7, Connor and Scott reconnoitered the citys massive defenses. Armies Commanders: United States Major General Winfield Scott10,000 men Mexico Brigadier General Juan Morales3,360 men Americas First D-Day Considered the most heavily fortified city in the Western Hemisphere, Veracruz was walled and guarded by Forts Santiago and ConcepciÃ ³n. In addition, the harbor was protected by the famed Fort San Juan de UlÃ ºa which possessed 128 guns. Wishing to avoid the citys guns, Scott decided to land southeast of the city at Mocambo Bays Collado Beach. Moving into position, American forces prepared to go ashore on March 9. Covered by the guns of Connors ships, Worths men began moving towards the beach around 1:00 PM in specially designed surf boats. The only Mexican troops present were a small body of lancers which were driven off by naval gunfire. Racing ahead, Worth was the first American ashore and was quickly followed another 5,500 men. Facing no opposition, Scott landed the remainder of his army and began moving to invest the city. Investing Veracruz Sent north from the beachhead, Brigadier General Gideon Pillows brigade of Pattersons division defeated a force of Mexican cavalry at Malibrn. This severed the road to Alvarado and cut off the citys supply of fresh water. Pattersons other brigades, led by Brigadier Generals John Quitman and James Shields aided in holding off the enemy as Scotts men moved to surround Veracruz. The investment of the city was completed within three days and saw the Americans establish a line running from Playa Vergara south to Collado. Reducing the City Within the city, Brigadier General Juan Morales possessed 3,360 men as well as another 1,030 offshore at San Juan de UlÃ ºa. Outnumbered, he hoped to hold the city until aid could arrive from the interior or the approaching yellow fever season began to reduce Scotts army. Though several of Scotts senior commanders wished to attempt a storming of the city, the methodical general insisted on reducing the city through siege tactics to avoid needless casualties. He insisted that the operation should cost the lives of no more than 100 men. Though a storm delayed the arrival of his siege guns, Scotts engineers including Captains Robert E. Lee and Joseph Johnston, as well as Lieutenant George McClellan began working to site gun emplacements and enhance the siege lines. On March 21, Commodore Matthew Perry arrived to relieve Connor. Perry offered six naval guns and their crews which Scott accepted. These were quickly emplaced by Lee. The next day, Scott demanded that Morales surrender the city. When this was refused, the American guns began bombarding the city. Though the defenders returned fire, they caused few injuries. No Relief The bombardment from Scotts lines was supported by Perrys ships offshore. On March 24, a Mexican soldier was captured carrying dispatches stating that General Antonio LÃ ³pez de Santa Anna was approaching the city with a relief force. Harneys dragoons were dispatched to investigate and located a force of around 2,000 Mexicans. To meet this threat, Scott dispatched Patterson with a force which drove off the enemy. The next day, the Mexicans in Veracruz requested a ceasefire and asked that women and children be allowed to leave the city. This was refused by Scott who believed it to be a delaying tactic. Resuming the bombardment, the artillery fire caused several fires in the city. On the night of March 25/26, Morales called a council of war. During the meeting, his officers recommended that he surrender the city. Morales was unwilling to do so and resigned leaving General JosÃ © Juan Landero to assume command. On March 26, the Mexicans again requested a ceasefire and Scott sent Worth to investigate. Returning with a note, Worth stated that he believed the Mexicans were stalling and offered to lead his division against the city. Scott declined and based on the language in the note, began surrender negotiations. After three days of talks, Morales agreed to surrender the city and San Juan de UlÃ ºa. Aftermath Achieving his goal, Scott only lost 13 killed and 54 wounded in capturing the city. Mexican losses are less clear and were approximately 350-400 soldiers killed, as well as 100-600 civilians. Though initially chastised in the foreign press for the inhumanity of the bombardment, Scotts achievement in capturing a heavily fortified city with minimal losses was staggering. Establishing a large base at Veracruz, Scott quickly moved to get the bulk of his army away from the coast before yellow fever season. Leaving a small garrison to hold the city, the army departed on April 8 for Jalapa and began the campaign that would ultimately capture Mexico City.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Many Types of Drop-In Fuels These days, itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to find an organic material that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t being positioned as the next great alternative energy source. Rising to the top of the list are biofuels known as so-called Ã¢â¬Å"drop inÃ¢â¬ fuels Ã¢â¬â those renewable sources that can be used without major investment in infrastructure in the U.S. where storage and distribution has long catered to petroleum. That current investment in infrastructure isnÃ¢â¬â¢t small potatoes. There is about $7 billion in pipeline expenditures alone each and every year. Defining Drop-in Fuels What defines a drop-in fuel? The alternative fuels industry itself isnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly clear, with some defining it broadly to mean any renewable fuel making use of at least some of the costly existing petroleum infrastructure. Others have taken a more narrowed approach. One of the most popular definitions is that drop-in fuels are those renewable fuels which can be blended with petroleum products, such as gasoline, and utilized in the current infrastructure of pumps, pipelines and other existing equipment. Ã Under such a definition, a biofuel would require some percentage of gasoline blender , derived from unique gasoline stocks, to form the fuelÃ¢â¬â¢s base. Examples of drop-in fuels defined in this way include the terpenes, butanol and isoprene, among other. Often, the technology is applied to diesel fuel, forming a biodiesel, rather than to gasoline. There are even some next-generation biofuels proponents who are developing mixtures of chemicals to form a biofuel without the gasoline or diesel base. Algae Most Common Drop-in Fuel With well over 50 companies investing in the development of algae as a biofuel, the little green plant reigns supreme among drop-in fuels. Yet, despite this general interest, most biofuels experts agree that at least another decade of research and technological breakthroughs will be necessary before this drop-in fuel is deemed commercially viable. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a long- and costly- trail ahead. As with most drop-in fuels, the challenges come in moving the technology from the lab to full-scale commercial production. An additional challenge with algae specifically has been the wide variance among algae and the extensive processing necessary. Butanol Also Sees Growth But algae isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only show in town. Last year, a leading biobutanol company, Gevo, announced plans to acquire ethanol facilities in the Midwest and convert them to commercial production of the drop-in fuel isobutanol, also known as isobutyl alcohol. Ã The move was seen by industry players as a step forward in the development of butanol as an alternative drop-in fuel, with the company hoping to begin isobutanol production by 2012. Although able to make use of existing infrastructure, unlike algae, there is some concern over potential safety threats. Vapors can travel long distances and collect in low-lying areas to form an explosion hazard. However, its proponents are quick to point out the biofuelÃ¢â¬â¢s many fuel and chemical applications make it an attractive venture. Big player DuPont has also tested the waters of biobutanol as a drop-in fuel and plans to likewise rely on existing under-utilized ethanol capacity and conventional feedstocks as it gets its operations off the ground. The investment to retrofit existing ethanol facilities is more economical than building new structures and require only minor changes to the fermentation and distillation processes. Broadening Portfolios DuPont says it plans to follow a multi-step approach to drop-in fuel development, first focusing on n-butyl alcohol and conventional feedstocks before moving on to other drop-in fuels like isobutanol as well as non-feed crops, such as cellulosic feedstocks. Ã Yet another company, ButylFuel, LLC, has gone on record as having said it has now developed fermentation-derived biobutanol at a cost that is competitive with petroleum products. Its drop-in fuel can be blended at a variety of percentages with gasoline or diesel fuels. How competitive? The company claims it can produce its drop-in fuel from corn for about $1.20 per gallon. Like algae players who are benefiting not only from algae as a drop-in fuel, but from the many byproducts as well, research and development in other drop-in fuels sectors are looking at diverse portfolios of products, causing some to characterize this next generation of alternative fuels as a means to produce hydrocarbon blend stock that can have a multitude of applications.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Refection paper - Essay Example The speaker based her presentation on life experience and the entire event was informative and identified concepts that are applicable to my real life situation (Syracuse University). The event was informative and improved my knowledge on existence of challenges from different aspects of life. It also enlightened me on different aspects of life and their roles in facilitating strength and coexistence among individuals. With the knowledge of natural and human imposed limits, the event taught me of the benefits of courage in facing challenges. A courageous heart will for example have strength to embrace difficulties and uncertainties until success is realized and therefore reduces chances of missed opportunities. The event has also taught me the concept of persistence and determination in pursuing a venture. These concepts define continued efforts in spite of possible challenges in a situation and they eliminate possibilities of losing a viable opportunity because of lost hope from frustrations. Close to the concept of persistence is the concept of perseverance that I also learnt from the unit and that facilitates success in initiatives (Syracuse University). I also learnt of the importance and significance of having a purpose in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life, of having a driving factor in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, of being spiritual and being able to maintain established potentials. A purpose establishes targets to be attained and facilitates development of strategies for attaining those targets. I have also learnt to understand purpose as an intrinsic motivator that encourages efforts towards achieving desired goals. The event also enlightened me of the need to be a motivated person in order to embrace and even overcome challenges in life. Hope, courage, and faith that are developed from spiritual aspects of life are other sources of power and strength towards managing challenges and overcoming them to achieve success (Syracuse University). The Ã¢â¬Ë30th Annual
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Discussion bord 3 - Assignment Example The process of determining the sample size that will produce valid and acceptable results with respect to the entire population involves a number of statistical calculations and inferences, popularly referred to as sample size calculator. The survey system developed a sample size calculator that plays a critical role in determining the effectiveness of the sample size to be used to generate a reliable information and characteristics about the population. In terming the sample size, the level of confidence and confidence interval are very important variables that must be considered (Snedecor, 2009). For instance, at 95% level of confidence with a confidence interval of 5, from a population of 100, a sample size of 80 would be appropriate in generating the desired characteristics about the entire population. Confidence interval is the measure of the marginal error that is acceptable. On the other hand, confidence level is the measure of accuracy and reliability of the results. At 95% confidence level, the certainty is the outcome is acceptable at 95% (Dattalo,
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Challenges Faces Holiday Inn - Essay Example As the discussion highlights toÃ improve on sales of the restaurant, management decided to change their brand name. The action was intended to change the perception of the guests. Changing the perception of the guests would improve on sales. The increase in sales will be an outcome from fooling guests that the products in this case, which are pizza, are from a different restaurant Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢. Management of the restaurant also decided on changing delivery boxes to the room service. They also changed the brochures for each guesthouse to indicate Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢ and their phone number had a different prefix and would be as Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizza.Ã In marketing, various ethical issues should be adhered in the process of business. In this case, various marketing ethics issues were violated. Firstly, the management of Holiday inn restaurant fooled their customers by temporarily changing their brand name to Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢ with the aim of increasing sales to maximize profit. The practice was contrary to marketing ethics that requires businesses to advertize their products in promoting honesty, fairness, and responsibility. In this case, management of the restaurant failed to take the responsibility of marketing to promote their sales and instead put on a fake brand name. Another ethical issue arose from the restaurant using another organizations name without their authorization. The act resulted into disrespect and violation of the marketing and business ethics. Secondly, the restaurant provided brochures with a fake name to impress their customers and at the same time boost sale sales in the room service. The management did not show their real identity to their customers in the guesthouses and faked their delivery boxes.Ã
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Project Management Success Factors Introduction Project is a temporary, unique and novel endeavor having a clear finish date (Project Management Institute, 2013). Project success has been a hot topic of debate for the last few decades. A lot of research and study has been done in this respect but the results are elusive rather than conclusive. The fundamental reason behind this is the unique nature, size and complexity of a project. Project success is a perceived concept and there is a wide divergence of opinions concerning this. Early research on project success was done keeping into account the golden triangle of time, budget and required levels of quality (Belassi, 1996). Failure to meet this expectations/standards, the project was considered as a failure. However, in the last two decades, the focus has been more on organizational and management success. The assessment of project success is done by different interest groups- (Stockholders, managers, customers and employees). Therefore, assessment of project success must be done in accordance to different views (Stuckenbruck, 1986) (Baccarini, 1999) identified the two distinct sources of project success: Project Management Success Emphasizes on project process and the successful accomplishment of golden triangle (cost, time and quality). Also, it addresses the way a project was conducted. Product Success- Deals with the effects of products final outcome. Project success is of prime most importance as a vast majority of the projects fail, incurring huge amounts of losses (resources and time). To overcome this, prominent researchers have adopted a two-dimensional method of addressing project success, namely project success criteria and success factors. PROJECT CRITICAL SUCCESS CRITERIA AND CRITICIAL SUCCESS FACTORS Ã Ã Project success criteria are the set of guidelines and standards used to review the success or failures of a project. These are dependent on a lot of factors/variables and will be subject to variation in perception by different stakeholders. Traditionally, project success criteria were dependent on the golden or iron triangle (cost, time and quality). Conversely, it was later on discovered that success criteria couldnt be measured based on these factors alone as the perception of project success varies from person to person. Furthermore, research also shows that it is impossible to generate a standard specification of success criteria apposite for all projects. Assessment of project was done on different criterias, including utility of the final project, client satisfaction, and the probability of making use of the finished project (Slevin Pinto, 1986). Although different researches have different opinions, there is a general consensus regarding the result areas, which covers the en tire issue of project success in the broadest sense. Some of the key elements of project success criteria are as follows: Stakeholders Appreciation. User Appreciation. Appreciation by contracting partners. Appreciation by project personnel. Appreciation by users. Client appreciation. Time. Quality. Cost. Project efficiency. Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. (Project Management Institute, 2013). A lot of significant research work has been carried out in the field of project management to identify and determine the critical success factors. Eminent researchers , Pinto and Slevin were the first to develop a Project management tool, named Project Implementation Plan (PIP) and identification of critical success factors (Slevin Pinto, 1986). These factors were widely accepted and also used by other researchers (Scott-Young Samson, 2004) . Furthermore, it was also realized that due to complexities and subtleties of projects, this method wasnt very effective and the Project implementation tool (PIP) was used to examine the Critical success Factors (CSF) over different project life cycles (Pinto Prescott, 1998) (Adams, 1978) (King Cleland, 1983). The various Critical Success Factors associated with the dif ferent project life cycles are as follows: Project Initiation or Conceptualization Phase: (Success factors- Definition of goals, project objectives, project summary and client appreciation). (Morris Hough, 1987) Project Planning Phase : (Success factors- Scope definition, project strategy, selection of team members, work breakdown structure (WBS), resource allocation, client acceptance and management support). (Cleland King, 1983) (Belassi, 1996) Project Execution Phase: (Success factors- Scheduling, technical works, trouble-shooting, monitoring and feedback, innovation and quality control) (Morris Hough, 1987) Project Closing or Terminating Phase: (Success factors- Client feedback, work review, technical tasks, client consultation, project reports.) (Belassi, 1996) Furthermore, the success factors can also be divided into major groups covering all the aspects and elements of project management (Westerveld, 2002). These are as follows: Management of Human Resources: (Team and leadership, Project manager, stakeholder Management) Project Process: (Planning, scheduling, controlling, monitoring, quality and risk) Organizational Factors: (Resources , policy , organizational structure) Technical Factors: (Procurement, Contractor, technical works and novelty) External Factors: (Skilled human resources, experience, project size, project uniqueness, management support structure, political stability, environment and other natural hazards) Thus, it can be concluded that project success criteria emphasizes more on the result oriented areas, whereas; success factors focus more on the organizational areas of a project (Westerveld, 2002). At the same time, they both act as excellent guidelines for the management team to formulate and device their strategy, implementing and executing them in order to achieve direct or indirect project success. Also, researchers have found that that human resource management accelerates projects success more than technical skills (Scott-Young Samson, 2004). Project managers play a pivotal role when it comes to successful delivery of projects. Due to the complexity and uniqueness associated with each project, it is of outmost importance for a project manager to develop and adopt a multi-dimensional approach. As the project manager has to focus on multiple variables, it is essential for the project manager to get his management team onboard as quickly as possible and define project goals, sco pe and execution plan. A project manager must realize and understand the client and organizations expectations and design a bespoke plan of action taking into account the success criteria and success factors.
Friday, October 25, 2019
In Fahrenheit 451 and Lord of the Flies, the characters are alike in some ways. In Fahrenheit 451 the characters are Montag, Faber, Clarisse, and Beatty. In Lord of the Flies the characters are Ralph, Piggy, Simon and Jack. Jack and Beatty, Ralph and Montag, Simon and Clarisse, and Piggy and Faber all have some similarities. Jack and beatty both want to take control over everyone and sells fear. Ralph and Montag want to move on and find a better plan to make everything work. Simon and Clarisse are Christ-figures. Piggy and Faber are very intellectual and are wise men. The books may contain different story lines but have very similar types of characters. In Fahrenheit 451 the main characters are Montag, Faber, Clarisse, and Beatty. Montag is someone who knows what he wants and what he wants is change. He is a fireman who suddenly realizes the emptiness of his life and starts to search for meaning in the books he is supposed to be burning. Though he is sometimes rash and has a hard time thinking for himself, he is determined to break free from the oppression of ignorance. He quickly forms unusually strong attachments with anyone who seems receptive to true friendship. At first, Montag believes that he is happy. He thinks this because of the question that Clarisse asks him. When he views himself in the firehouse mirror after a night of burning, he grins "the fierce grin of all men singed and driven back by flame." His biggest regret in life is not having a better relationship with his wife. Faber is a very wise and intellectual man. He readily admits that the current state of society is due to the cowardice of people like himsel f, who would not speak out against book burning when they still could have stopped it. He berates himself for being a coward, but he shows himself capable of acts that require great courage and place him in considerable danger. Clarisse seems to always be of in her own world. She was a beautiful seventeen-year-old who introduces Montag to the world's potential for beauty and meaning with her gentle innocence and curiosity. She is an outcast from society because of her odd habits, which include hiking, playing with flowers, and asking questions. She asks questions such as, "Are you happy?
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The day was April 10th 1734 and Montreal was on fire. Undoubtedly back then, Montreal was a very different place than it is today; it was a trade and military town of about 2000 people. Canada would still have 100 years before she became a nation and it was a time when MontrealÃ¢â¬â¢s social class mirrored that of its indigenous home France. Slavery was very much a part of everyday society and many citizens had slaves of African and Amerindian descent. No one on that day could have possibly foreseen what was to come and the replications it would have for centuries to come. It was an unusually mild Saturday evening and the people who had attended evening prayer were beginning to make their way home. Among them was ThÃ ©rÃ ¨se de Couagne, widow of FranÃ §ois Poulin de Francheville and the owner of AngÃ ©lique a slave of African American decent who was born in Portugal and later sold into New France. Ã¢â¬Å"At seven the sentry sounded the alarm Ã¢â¬Ëfire!Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ , that evening a devastating fire occurred in MontrÃ ©al that destroyed a hospital and 45 houses on rue Saint-Paul. Someone was to blame for this catastrophe and it was Angelique. After being tried and convicted of setting fire to her ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s home, burning much of what is now referred to as Old Montreal, she was hanged. In order to get a stronger understanding of crime and punishment in New-France, one must examine the trial in a much more in depth context. The justice system in 1700 Montreal followed the same rules as its mother country France. In terms of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, the government was far less democratic. The accused had few rights and the evidence was oftenÃ faulty or based on word of mouth; torture and severe punishments were often used. In 1734, the various stages of trial, duties of the courts, witnesses, and rights of the accused were regulated by the Ã¢â¬Å"Ordonnance du Roi (1670).Ã¢â¬ Often the accused had no access to lawyers as they were forbidden in New-France: ARTICLE VIII. The accused, whatever their status may be, will be required to respond in their own words, without the advice of counsel, which will not be given to them, not even following the confrontation, notwithstanding all contrary methods that we abrogate. (1) Also, trials were often held without a jury (2) thus the accused stood alone in front of a judge in order to prove his or her innocence. Undoubtedly, the French law formed a very tight and respected system. The prosecution witnesses were often intimidated by court staff; witnesses for the accused were rarely presented, and Ã¢â¬Å"the future of the accused depended on his or her testimony (3). In many instances, little or no facts were required to be prosecuted. In the case of AngÃ ©lique, the day after the fire a rumour circulated which accused her and her lover Claude Thibault of setting the fire that destroyed a majority of Montreal (4). The kingÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecutor relied on this rumour to have the two suspects arrested. At the time, French law allowed a suspect to be arrested based on Ã¢â¬Å"public knowledge (5),Ã¢â¬ when the community agreed that a suspect was guilty (6): Ã¢â¬Å"The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Prosecutor Advises You that according to Public Report, the Fire that occurred in this city on the day of yesterday at around seven in the evening was caused by the Negress, Slave of the widow of Sieur franchevilleÃ¢â¬ ¦ This considered, Monsieur, may it please you to allow the said KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Prosecutor to have this investigated, and meanwhile to have arrested and taken to the Royal gaol of this city the said Negress.Ã¢â¬ (7) In the event of a death sentence, the prosecutor was Ã¢â¬Å"required under the Ã¢â¬ËOrdonnance criminelleÃ¢â¬â¢ of 1670,Ã¢â¬ to appeal the sentence in the name of the accused (8). New-France considered the following as crimes: crimes against religion, crimes against morality, crimes against peace, and crimes against public safety (2). Each type of crime had its own form of punishment. The title of Religious crime was only considered if some form of sacrilege took place as well as if there was a direct attack against theÃ church. A crime against morality would also reflect the nature of the crime; although, the idea of a morally just 1734 citizen varies greatly from a morally just person today. Many were deprived of social pleasures that society Ã¢â¬Å"attached to moral purity, [if one did not exercise a life of Ã¢â¬Å"moral purityÃ¢â¬ ] he or she could be: fined, shamed, sentenced to a life in hiding, or banished from the city and from societyÃ¢â¬ (2). A crime against peace would also often reflect the requirement of retribution. This was done through prison sentences, exile, correctional measures etc. The correctional measures were used to rehabilitate or return the criminal to a Ã¢â¬Å"normal stateÃ¢â¬ . Lastly, crimes against public safety were most well known as Ã¢â¬Å"eye-for-an-eyeÃ¢â¬ retribution. The punishments handed down for such crimes would reflect the nature of the crime and was based on reason as well as on the notion of right and wrong. Crimes against theft were met by a loss of property; however, because those who stole had few riches, capital punishment (death) was used as a means to replace financial retribution. If one murdered another, the penalty was almost always death (usually by hanging). Criminal trials were often a means for retribution for a crime against society (9). When evidence was lacking, the prosecution would ask permission to apply torture prior to a proper judgment. Many examples of harsh punishments (ie: torture) exist: Jean Baptiste Thomas negro and Francois Darles were condemned to be hanged, Charlotte Martin OndoyÃ © and Marie Vennes were beaten and castigated with the rod, and Charlotte DÃ¢â¬â¢arragon was admonished, Thomas negro having been found guilty of Domestic thievery, Francois Darles of having concealed the items, Charlotte Martin OndoyÃ ©, and Marie Vennes guilty of possessing some stolen items of little consequence. This sentence was executed on the 23 of August in MontrÃ ©al where the crime was committed. (10) Moreover, the most common form of punishment was Ã¢â¬Å"The Boot.Ã¢â¬ (2) It consisted of four planks of wound tied to the legs of the accused. Two of those planks were placed between the criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s legs, and the other two on the outside of the legs. All were bound with rope. A wedge was then pounded between the planks on the inside, causing the plank to spread and the ropeÃ to tighten. The pressure of the wedge would often break the accused legs (sometimes just merely dislocating them). This practice was used as a method of extracting the truth and was excruciatingly painful (10). Torture in New-France was widely used, especially when the accused would not reveal their accomplices (if any) or admit to their guilt (2). In AngÃ ©liqueÃ¢â¬â¢s case, upon appeal, Ã¢â¬Å"[she was] sentenced to death, but the manner in which it was to be carried out was softened: she would not have her hand severed and she would be hanged before being burned.Ã¢â¬ (7) More importantly, she was subjected to torture by the Ã¢â¬Ëboot'(4) but she never revealed any accomplice, stating that only she had started the fire.(10) Subsequent to her admission, she was executed. In the end, crime in 1734 was not seen lightly and often carried severe punishments. Perhaps fear of such severe punishment, of being arrested based on rumours and faulty evidence was supposed to act as a deterrent. Although evidence of AngeliqueÃ¢â¬â¢s trial such as court documents does exist, the lack of concrete proof of guilt obscures the events and subsequent truth of that night. She was sentenced to prosecution based solely off of rumours and word of mouth, and whether she had a past of destructive and rebellious nature or not, that in no way under a court of law in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards leads one to believe she is or ever was guilty. This, however, has not prohibited her story from becoming almost legend. Many authors and figures in our society today, 200 years later utilize her story as leverage. Angelique is seen as an African American slave activist who stood up against her superiors and common law for the better of humanity. She is also viewed as the perfect example of why the old dark ways of our justice system is faulty and raises questions about the power of government and the danger of whether or not that power can condemn an innocent woman for 200 years without question. Conclusively, because the prosecution at her trial did not meet the burden proof (by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards), it is impossible to know if she truly was guilty. One way or another her trial and story will continue to echo in Canadian history. Bibliography 1. Louis XIV, Ã¢â¬Å"Procedure relative to the interrogation of the accused, in lÃ¢â¬â¢Ordonnance Ã¢â¬ ¦ pour les matiÃ ¨res criminellesÃ¢â¬ (Chez les AssociÃ ©s, 1670). 2. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/contexte/lajustice/indexen.html 3. Criminal procedures: Secondat Baron de La BrÃ ¨de et de Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de, Ã¢â¬Å"Reflections on criminal procedures in England and in France, in De lÃ¢â¬â¢esprit des loix Ã¢â¬ (Amsterdam et Leipsick: Nouvelle Ã ©dition, revue, corrigÃ ©e et considÃ ©rablement augmentÃ ©e par lÃ¢â¬â¢auteur [Ã¢â¬ ¦], Chez ArkstÃ ©e et Merkus, n.d.), T. 3, L. 29 p. 308-9. 4. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/proces/indexen.html 5. Criminal procedure against the accused: Archives nationales du QuÃ ©bec, Centre de MontrÃ ©al, Procedure Criminel contre Marie Joseph AngÃ ©lique negresse Ã¢â¬â Incendiere, 1734, TL4 S1, 4136, Juridiction royale de MontrÃ ©al, Deposition of Ãâ°tienne Volant Radisson, April 14, 1734, 1-4.) 6. Archives nationales du QuÃ ©bec, Centre de MontrÃ ©al, Procedure Criminel contre Marie Joseph AngÃ ©lique negresse Ã¢â¬â Incendiere, 1734, TL4 S1, 4136, Juridiction royale de MontrÃ ©al, Request by the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecutor for the arrest of AngÃ ©lique and of Claude Thibault, April 11, 1734, 1. 7. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/proces/jugementetappel/indexen.html 8. Criminal trial: Diderot, Denis et Jean le Rond dÃ¢â¬â¢Alembert, Ã¢â¬Å"The criminal trial, in lÃ¢â¬â¢EncyclopÃ ©die, ou Dictionnaire RaisonnÃ © des Sciences, des Arts et des MÃ ©tiers Ã¢â¬ (Paris: Briasson et autres, n.d.), tome XIII, page 405. 9. Examples of punishment: France. Archives nationales, Fonds des Colonies. SÃ ©rie C11A. Correspondance gÃ ©nÃ ©rale, Canada, vol 64, fol. 12-15v, Hocquart, Gilles, Letter to the Ministre de la Marine, October 1, 1735, 10. Admission of guilt Germain, Jean-Claude, Ã¢â¬Å"The Life and Times of MontrÃ ©alÃ¢â¬ (MontrÃ ©al: StankÃ ©, 1994), tome I, pages 284-28. 4 . Relying on the Ã¢â¬Å"Ordonnance criminelleÃ¢â¬ of 1670, the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecutor had an arrest warrant issued against AngÃ ©lique based solely on this public rumour.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/proces/indexen.html)