Thursday, October 31, 2019
Discussion bord 3 - Assignment Example The process of determining the sample size that will produce valid and acceptable results with respect to the entire population involves a number of statistical calculations and inferences, popularly referred to as sample size calculator. The survey system developed a sample size calculator that plays a critical role in determining the effectiveness of the sample size to be used to generate a reliable information and characteristics about the population. In terming the sample size, the level of confidence and confidence interval are very important variables that must be considered (Snedecor, 2009). For instance, at 95% level of confidence with a confidence interval of 5, from a population of 100, a sample size of 80 would be appropriate in generating the desired characteristics about the entire population. Confidence interval is the measure of the marginal error that is acceptable. On the other hand, confidence level is the measure of accuracy and reliability of the results. At 95% confidence level, the certainty is the outcome is acceptable at 95% (Dattalo,
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Challenges Faces Holiday Inn - Essay Example As the discussion highlights toÃ improve on sales of the restaurant, management decided to change their brand name. The action was intended to change the perception of the guests. Changing the perception of the guests would improve on sales. The increase in sales will be an outcome from fooling guests that the products in this case, which are pizza, are from a different restaurant Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢. Management of the restaurant also decided on changing delivery boxes to the room service. They also changed the brochures for each guesthouse to indicate Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢ and their phone number had a different prefix and would be as Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizza.Ã In marketing, various ethical issues should be adhered in the process of business. In this case, various marketing ethics issues were violated. Firstly, the management of Holiday inn restaurant fooled their customers by temporarily changing their brand name to Ã¢â¬ËNapoli pizzaÃ¢â¬â¢ with the aim of increasing sales to maximize profit. The practice was contrary to marketing ethics that requires businesses to advertize their products in promoting honesty, fairness, and responsibility. In this case, management of the restaurant failed to take the responsibility of marketing to promote their sales and instead put on a fake brand name. Another ethical issue arose from the restaurant using another organizations name without their authorization. The act resulted into disrespect and violation of the marketing and business ethics. Secondly, the restaurant provided brochures with a fake name to impress their customers and at the same time boost sale sales in the room service. The management did not show their real identity to their customers in the guesthouses and faked their delivery boxes.Ã
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Project Management Success Factors Introduction Project is a temporary, unique and novel endeavor having a clear finish date (Project Management Institute, 2013). Project success has been a hot topic of debate for the last few decades. A lot of research and study has been done in this respect but the results are elusive rather than conclusive. The fundamental reason behind this is the unique nature, size and complexity of a project. Project success is a perceived concept and there is a wide divergence of opinions concerning this. Early research on project success was done keeping into account the golden triangle of time, budget and required levels of quality (Belassi, 1996). Failure to meet this expectations/standards, the project was considered as a failure. However, in the last two decades, the focus has been more on organizational and management success. The assessment of project success is done by different interest groups- (Stockholders, managers, customers and employees). Therefore, assessment of project success must be done in accordance to different views (Stuckenbruck, 1986) (Baccarini, 1999) identified the two distinct sources of project success: Project Management Success Emphasizes on project process and the successful accomplishment of golden triangle (cost, time and quality). Also, it addresses the way a project was conducted. Product Success- Deals with the effects of products final outcome. Project success is of prime most importance as a vast majority of the projects fail, incurring huge amounts of losses (resources and time). To overcome this, prominent researchers have adopted a two-dimensional method of addressing project success, namely project success criteria and success factors. PROJECT CRITICAL SUCCESS CRITERIA AND CRITICIAL SUCCESS FACTORS Ã Ã Project success criteria are the set of guidelines and standards used to review the success or failures of a project. These are dependent on a lot of factors/variables and will be subject to variation in perception by different stakeholders. Traditionally, project success criteria were dependent on the golden or iron triangle (cost, time and quality). Conversely, it was later on discovered that success criteria couldnt be measured based on these factors alone as the perception of project success varies from person to person. Furthermore, research also shows that it is impossible to generate a standard specification of success criteria apposite for all projects. Assessment of project was done on different criterias, including utility of the final project, client satisfaction, and the probability of making use of the finished project (Slevin Pinto, 1986). Although different researches have different opinions, there is a general consensus regarding the result areas, which covers the en tire issue of project success in the broadest sense. Some of the key elements of project success criteria are as follows: Stakeholders Appreciation. User Appreciation. Appreciation by contracting partners. Appreciation by project personnel. Appreciation by users. Client appreciation. Time. Quality. Cost. Project efficiency. Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. (Project Management Institute, 2013). A lot of significant research work has been carried out in the field of project management to identify and determine the critical success factors. Eminent researchers , Pinto and Slevin were the first to develop a Project management tool, named Project Implementation Plan (PIP) and identification of critical success factors (Slevin Pinto, 1986). These factors were widely accepted and also used by other researchers (Scott-Young Samson, 2004) . Furthermore, it was also realized that due to complexities and subtleties of projects, this method wasnt very effective and the Project implementation tool (PIP) was used to examine the Critical success Factors (CSF) over different project life cycles (Pinto Prescott, 1998) (Adams, 1978) (King Cleland, 1983). The various Critical Success Factors associated with the dif ferent project life cycles are as follows: Project Initiation or Conceptualization Phase: (Success factors- Definition of goals, project objectives, project summary and client appreciation). (Morris Hough, 1987) Project Planning Phase : (Success factors- Scope definition, project strategy, selection of team members, work breakdown structure (WBS), resource allocation, client acceptance and management support). (Cleland King, 1983) (Belassi, 1996) Project Execution Phase: (Success factors- Scheduling, technical works, trouble-shooting, monitoring and feedback, innovation and quality control) (Morris Hough, 1987) Project Closing or Terminating Phase: (Success factors- Client feedback, work review, technical tasks, client consultation, project reports.) (Belassi, 1996) Furthermore, the success factors can also be divided into major groups covering all the aspects and elements of project management (Westerveld, 2002). These are as follows: Management of Human Resources: (Team and leadership, Project manager, stakeholder Management) Project Process: (Planning, scheduling, controlling, monitoring, quality and risk) Organizational Factors: (Resources , policy , organizational structure) Technical Factors: (Procurement, Contractor, technical works and novelty) External Factors: (Skilled human resources, experience, project size, project uniqueness, management support structure, political stability, environment and other natural hazards) Thus, it can be concluded that project success criteria emphasizes more on the result oriented areas, whereas; success factors focus more on the organizational areas of a project (Westerveld, 2002). At the same time, they both act as excellent guidelines for the management team to formulate and device their strategy, implementing and executing them in order to achieve direct or indirect project success. Also, researchers have found that that human resource management accelerates projects success more than technical skills (Scott-Young Samson, 2004). Project managers play a pivotal role when it comes to successful delivery of projects. Due to the complexity and uniqueness associated with each project, it is of outmost importance for a project manager to develop and adopt a multi-dimensional approach. As the project manager has to focus on multiple variables, it is essential for the project manager to get his management team onboard as quickly as possible and define project goals, sco pe and execution plan. A project manager must realize and understand the client and organizations expectations and design a bespoke plan of action taking into account the success criteria and success factors.
Friday, October 25, 2019
In Fahrenheit 451 and Lord of the Flies, the characters are alike in some ways. In Fahrenheit 451 the characters are Montag, Faber, Clarisse, and Beatty. In Lord of the Flies the characters are Ralph, Piggy, Simon and Jack. Jack and Beatty, Ralph and Montag, Simon and Clarisse, and Piggy and Faber all have some similarities. Jack and beatty both want to take control over everyone and sells fear. Ralph and Montag want to move on and find a better plan to make everything work. Simon and Clarisse are Christ-figures. Piggy and Faber are very intellectual and are wise men. The books may contain different story lines but have very similar types of characters. In Fahrenheit 451 the main characters are Montag, Faber, Clarisse, and Beatty. Montag is someone who knows what he wants and what he wants is change. He is a fireman who suddenly realizes the emptiness of his life and starts to search for meaning in the books he is supposed to be burning. Though he is sometimes rash and has a hard time thinking for himself, he is determined to break free from the oppression of ignorance. He quickly forms unusually strong attachments with anyone who seems receptive to true friendship. At first, Montag believes that he is happy. He thinks this because of the question that Clarisse asks him. When he views himself in the firehouse mirror after a night of burning, he grins "the fierce grin of all men singed and driven back by flame." His biggest regret in life is not having a better relationship with his wife. Faber is a very wise and intellectual man. He readily admits that the current state of society is due to the cowardice of people like himsel f, who would not speak out against book burning when they still could have stopped it. He berates himself for being a coward, but he shows himself capable of acts that require great courage and place him in considerable danger. Clarisse seems to always be of in her own world. She was a beautiful seventeen-year-old who introduces Montag to the world's potential for beauty and meaning with her gentle innocence and curiosity. She is an outcast from society because of her odd habits, which include hiking, playing with flowers, and asking questions. She asks questions such as, "Are you happy?
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The day was April 10th 1734 and Montreal was on fire. Undoubtedly back then, Montreal was a very different place than it is today; it was a trade and military town of about 2000 people. Canada would still have 100 years before she became a nation and it was a time when MontrealÃ¢â¬â¢s social class mirrored that of its indigenous home France. Slavery was very much a part of everyday society and many citizens had slaves of African and Amerindian descent. No one on that day could have possibly foreseen what was to come and the replications it would have for centuries to come. It was an unusually mild Saturday evening and the people who had attended evening prayer were beginning to make their way home. Among them was ThÃ ©rÃ ¨se de Couagne, widow of FranÃ §ois Poulin de Francheville and the owner of AngÃ ©lique a slave of African American decent who was born in Portugal and later sold into New France. Ã¢â¬Å"At seven the sentry sounded the alarm Ã¢â¬Ëfire!Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ , that evening a devastating fire occurred in MontrÃ ©al that destroyed a hospital and 45 houses on rue Saint-Paul. Someone was to blame for this catastrophe and it was Angelique. After being tried and convicted of setting fire to her ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s home, burning much of what is now referred to as Old Montreal, she was hanged. In order to get a stronger understanding of crime and punishment in New-France, one must examine the trial in a much more in depth context. The justice system in 1700 Montreal followed the same rules as its mother country France. In terms of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, the government was far less democratic. The accused had few rights and the evidence was oftenÃ faulty or based on word of mouth; torture and severe punishments were often used. In 1734, the various stages of trial, duties of the courts, witnesses, and rights of the accused were regulated by the Ã¢â¬Å"Ordonnance du Roi (1670).Ã¢â¬ Often the accused had no access to lawyers as they were forbidden in New-France: ARTICLE VIII. The accused, whatever their status may be, will be required to respond in their own words, without the advice of counsel, which will not be given to them, not even following the confrontation, notwithstanding all contrary methods that we abrogate. (1) Also, trials were often held without a jury (2) thus the accused stood alone in front of a judge in order to prove his or her innocence. Undoubtedly, the French law formed a very tight and respected system. The prosecution witnesses were often intimidated by court staff; witnesses for the accused were rarely presented, and Ã¢â¬Å"the future of the accused depended on his or her testimony (3). In many instances, little or no facts were required to be prosecuted. In the case of AngÃ ©lique, the day after the fire a rumour circulated which accused her and her lover Claude Thibault of setting the fire that destroyed a majority of Montreal (4). The kingÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecutor relied on this rumour to have the two suspects arrested. At the time, French law allowed a suspect to be arrested based on Ã¢â¬Å"public knowledge (5),Ã¢â¬ when the community agreed that a suspect was guilty (6): Ã¢â¬Å"The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Prosecutor Advises You that according to Public Report, the Fire that occurred in this city on the day of yesterday at around seven in the evening was caused by the Negress, Slave of the widow of Sieur franchevilleÃ¢â¬ ¦ This considered, Monsieur, may it please you to allow the said KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Prosecutor to have this investigated, and meanwhile to have arrested and taken to the Royal gaol of this city the said Negress.Ã¢â¬ (7) In the event of a death sentence, the prosecutor was Ã¢â¬Å"required under the Ã¢â¬ËOrdonnance criminelleÃ¢â¬â¢ of 1670,Ã¢â¬ to appeal the sentence in the name of the accused (8). New-France considered the following as crimes: crimes against religion, crimes against morality, crimes against peace, and crimes against public safety (2). Each type of crime had its own form of punishment. The title of Religious crime was only considered if some form of sacrilege took place as well as if there was a direct attack against theÃ church. A crime against morality would also reflect the nature of the crime; although, the idea of a morally just 1734 citizen varies greatly from a morally just person today. Many were deprived of social pleasures that society Ã¢â¬Å"attached to moral purity, [if one did not exercise a life of Ã¢â¬Å"moral purityÃ¢â¬ ] he or she could be: fined, shamed, sentenced to a life in hiding, or banished from the city and from societyÃ¢â¬ (2). A crime against peace would also often reflect the requirement of retribution. This was done through prison sentences, exile, correctional measures etc. The correctional measures were used to rehabilitate or return the criminal to a Ã¢â¬Å"normal stateÃ¢â¬ . Lastly, crimes against public safety were most well known as Ã¢â¬Å"eye-for-an-eyeÃ¢â¬ retribution. The punishments handed down for such crimes would reflect the nature of the crime and was based on reason as well as on the notion of right and wrong. Crimes against theft were met by a loss of property; however, because those who stole had few riches, capital punishment (death) was used as a means to replace financial retribution. If one murdered another, the penalty was almost always death (usually by hanging). Criminal trials were often a means for retribution for a crime against society (9). When evidence was lacking, the prosecution would ask permission to apply torture prior to a proper judgment. Many examples of harsh punishments (ie: torture) exist: Jean Baptiste Thomas negro and Francois Darles were condemned to be hanged, Charlotte Martin OndoyÃ © and Marie Vennes were beaten and castigated with the rod, and Charlotte DÃ¢â¬â¢arragon was admonished, Thomas negro having been found guilty of Domestic thievery, Francois Darles of having concealed the items, Charlotte Martin OndoyÃ ©, and Marie Vennes guilty of possessing some stolen items of little consequence. This sentence was executed on the 23 of August in MontrÃ ©al where the crime was committed. (10) Moreover, the most common form of punishment was Ã¢â¬Å"The Boot.Ã¢â¬ (2) It consisted of four planks of wound tied to the legs of the accused. Two of those planks were placed between the criminalÃ¢â¬â¢s legs, and the other two on the outside of the legs. All were bound with rope. A wedge was then pounded between the planks on the inside, causing the plank to spread and the ropeÃ to tighten. The pressure of the wedge would often break the accused legs (sometimes just merely dislocating them). This practice was used as a method of extracting the truth and was excruciatingly painful (10). Torture in New-France was widely used, especially when the accused would not reveal their accomplices (if any) or admit to their guilt (2). In AngÃ ©liqueÃ¢â¬â¢s case, upon appeal, Ã¢â¬Å"[she was] sentenced to death, but the manner in which it was to be carried out was softened: she would not have her hand severed and she would be hanged before being burned.Ã¢â¬ (7) More importantly, she was subjected to torture by the Ã¢â¬Ëboot'(4) but she never revealed any accomplice, stating that only she had started the fire.(10) Subsequent to her admission, she was executed. In the end, crime in 1734 was not seen lightly and often carried severe punishments. Perhaps fear of such severe punishment, of being arrested based on rumours and faulty evidence was supposed to act as a deterrent. Although evidence of AngeliqueÃ¢â¬â¢s trial such as court documents does exist, the lack of concrete proof of guilt obscures the events and subsequent truth of that night. She was sentenced to prosecution based solely off of rumours and word of mouth, and whether she had a past of destructive and rebellious nature or not, that in no way under a court of law in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards leads one to believe she is or ever was guilty. This, however, has not prohibited her story from becoming almost legend. Many authors and figures in our society today, 200 years later utilize her story as leverage. Angelique is seen as an African American slave activist who stood up against her superiors and common law for the better of humanity. She is also viewed as the perfect example of why the old dark ways of our justice system is faulty and raises questions about the power of government and the danger of whether or not that power can condemn an innocent woman for 200 years without question. Conclusively, because the prosecution at her trial did not meet the burden proof (by todayÃ¢â¬â¢s standards), it is impossible to know if she truly was guilty. One way or another her trial and story will continue to echo in Canadian history. Bibliography 1. Louis XIV, Ã¢â¬Å"Procedure relative to the interrogation of the accused, in lÃ¢â¬â¢Ordonnance Ã¢â¬ ¦ pour les matiÃ ¨res criminellesÃ¢â¬ (Chez les AssociÃ ©s, 1670). 2. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/contexte/lajustice/indexen.html 3. Criminal procedures: Secondat Baron de La BrÃ ¨de et de Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de, Ã¢â¬Å"Reflections on criminal procedures in England and in France, in De lÃ¢â¬â¢esprit des loix Ã¢â¬ (Amsterdam et Leipsick: Nouvelle Ã ©dition, revue, corrigÃ ©e et considÃ ©rablement augmentÃ ©e par lÃ¢â¬â¢auteur [Ã¢â¬ ¦], Chez ArkstÃ ©e et Merkus, n.d.), T. 3, L. 29 p. 308-9. 4. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/proces/indexen.html 5. Criminal procedure against the accused: Archives nationales du QuÃ ©bec, Centre de MontrÃ ©al, Procedure Criminel contre Marie Joseph AngÃ ©lique negresse Ã¢â¬â Incendiere, 1734, TL4 S1, 4136, Juridiction royale de MontrÃ ©al, Deposition of Ãâ°tienne Volant Radisson, April 14, 1734, 1-4.) 6. Archives nationales du QuÃ ©bec, Centre de MontrÃ ©al, Procedure Criminel contre Marie Joseph AngÃ ©lique negresse Ã¢â¬â Incendiere, 1734, TL4 S1, 4136, Juridiction royale de MontrÃ ©al, Request by the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecutor for the arrest of AngÃ ©lique and of Claude Thibault, April 11, 1734, 1. 7. http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/proces/jugementetappel/indexen.html 8. Criminal trial: Diderot, Denis et Jean le Rond dÃ¢â¬â¢Alembert, Ã¢â¬Å"The criminal trial, in lÃ¢â¬â¢EncyclopÃ ©die, ou Dictionnaire RaisonnÃ © des Sciences, des Arts et des MÃ ©tiers Ã¢â¬ (Paris: Briasson et autres, n.d.), tome XIII, page 405. 9. Examples of punishment: France. Archives nationales, Fonds des Colonies. SÃ ©rie C11A. Correspondance gÃ ©nÃ ©rale, Canada, vol 64, fol. 12-15v, Hocquart, Gilles, Letter to the Ministre de la Marine, October 1, 1735, 10. Admission of guilt Germain, Jean-Claude, Ã¢â¬Å"The Life and Times of MontrÃ ©alÃ¢â¬ (MontrÃ ©al: StankÃ ©, 1994), tome I, pages 284-28. 4 . Relying on the Ã¢â¬Å"Ordonnance criminelleÃ¢â¬ of 1670, the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s prosecutor had an arrest warrant issued against AngÃ ©lique based solely on this public rumour.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/angelique/proces/indexen.html)
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Savannah Major February 23, 2013 Hon. English/ H. 3 Philosophies of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X The late 1950s to mid-1960s was a time when violence and injustice had reached its peak. Many people were treated unfairly and the mood of the country overall was very gloomy and unhappy. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X were both very well-known activists who fought to make things equal and right. 80th activists shared similar beliefs against the racial Injustice brought against African Americans by whites although their methods of achieving that equality were completely different.MLK, for Instance, believed In approaching things in a peaceful, nonviolent fashion. However, most African Americans felt that his Ã¢â¬Å"peaceful approachÃ¢â¬ wasn't enough to reach his. as well as their, goals and turned to Malcolm X, who believed that arming up against whites was a necessity in order to protect yourself. In other words, fight violence with violence. In the speech, Ã¢â¬Å"Stride Toward Freedom,Ã¢â¬ MLK discusses the three different ways of dealing with oppression; acquiescence, resorting to violence, and the use of nonviolent resistance.Only supporting one of the three, nonviolence, King strongly isagrees with both acquiescence and using violence as a way of making peace. Acquiescence, when the oppressed resign to their oppression and just deal with it. giving up on it all together. MLK believes that is not the way out, claiming that by resigning Ã¢â¬Å"the oppressed become as evil as the oppressor. Ã¢â¬ (King 301) The second form of oppression, resorting to physical violence, completely goes against his views.